March, 12, 1885, Carson City: "The report in yesterday's Enterprise that Major Garrard had left for Washington to apply for the Mint appointment is an error. Major Garrard attended the late Superintendent Crawford's funeral yesterday. "
Virginia City Chronicle, Octoer 12, 1886
Carson City Chess Club, October 26, 1883
Carson City Mint Superintendent Samuel Coleman Wright Obituary, August 2, 1892
1822: William Mountjoy Garrard was born in Goose Creek Salt Works, Kentucky, March 17, 1822 to Daniel Garrard (age 42) and Lucinda Jane Toulmin Garrard (age 31). He was the grandson of Kentucky's second Governor James Garrard.
1846 to 1848: William was a 25 year old lawyer when he enlisted and honorably served in Company E, 16th US Infantry as a 2nd lieutenant in Cerralvo, Mexico, under his brother Captain Theophilus Garrard, a well liked and respected officer. They were lucky and did not see combat, Theophilus stated, "I think the 8 months I stayed there were the most pleasant part of my life. The Mexicans were fond of us. We had no trouble with them. The climate was pleasant and everything went well." Later on Theophilus fought for the Union during the Civil War and was promoted to Brigadier General. William was promoted to the rank of Major at a later date. Click here for a list of Nevada Mexican War Veterans
1849: After the war, the brothers emigrated to California. William had success mining in Angels Camp, however Theophilus relocated back to Kentucky in 1850 to run the Garrard family's Goose Creek Salt Works. In 1852 William returned to Kentucky for his wife Mary Rebecca Woodson Garrard and along with their children, they emigrated overland from Kentucky via Sonora Pass in 1853. Sonora Pass Pioneers
1850 to 1860: The Garrard family ranch was located in Collegeville, San Joaquin County, near the ranch of his good friend Lewis "Broadhorns" Bradley. During this time William Garrard was president of the California State Agricultural Society, and gave this inspirational Opening Address at the Annual Fair in 1857 . He was also a delegate for the Big Trees Wagon Road convention of 1857 planning and lobbying for the route from Murphy's, California to Carson Valley, Nevada. The 1860 census finds the Garrard family living in Santa Clara, California.
1862: During the tremendous California floods of 1861-62 William Garrard and Lewis Bradley lost much of their property and cattle stock. This catastrophe along with the allure of the Comstock boom, influenced both families to relocate to Nevada. In 1865 William Garrard claimed (or purchased) the Buehla Copper Mine near the Ludwig Mine and Smelter on the Walker River in Mason Valley, he owned this productive mine for many years.
1870: The Garrards, including their 3 youngest children, were living in Virginia City, according to the 1870 Census his occupation was listed as miner. From 1875 to 1879 William Garrard served as the private secretary for his old friend Lewis Bradely during his term as the 2nd governor of Nevada. The family moved to Carson City, just a few blocks west of the capital building, on the NW corner of Second and Nevada Streets. Their home no longer exists, however, his daughter Lucy Garrard Campbell's home is pictured below.
In 1876 Frank Campbell and his wife,
Garrard's youngest daughter Lucy Garrard Campbell built what is known today as the Chartz House in Carson City.
1880 : The 1880 Census recorded Major William Garrard, occupation lawyer, at the Paiute Pyramid Lake Reservation. His family is not with him on this government assignment.
US Census images below record the Garrard family in Clay County, Kentucky 1850, Virginia City, Storey County, Nevada1870 and Pyramid Lake, Washoe County, Nevada 1880 are featured below.
1850, 1870, 1880 U.S. Census - Click Images for full size versions
Major Garrard served as private secretary for Nevada's second Governor Lewis R.Bradley during1871-1879, and fourth Governor Jewett W. Adams during 1883-1885
NEVADA STATE PRISON
1881 - FROM AN OCCASIONAL CORRESPONDENT, Carson City, Nevada "William Garrard, the newly elected Slate Prison Warden, took his office yesterday. His election is regarded with favor by all parties, and having been the Private Secretary of the late Governor Bradley, and the reputed author of the latter's Bullion tax veto, the Major's election is considered a compromise between the Bonanza and the anti-Bonanza rings of the Democratic party. Major Garrard is a Kentuckian by birth, a Mexican War veteran, and an old Californian, an early resident of San Joaquin county. He was a stock man in early times, and many an old Grass Valleyan has partaken of Major Garrard's juicy beef."
Grass Valley Morning Union, February 16 1881
1882 - DINOSAUR FOOTPRINTS DISCOVERED AT NEVADA STATE PRISON ..."VERY CAREFUL OBSERVATIONS...Major Garrard made every preparation for their visit and swept away the debris which had accumulated on the floor of the quarry with a hose, an operation which exposed numbers of new tracks the existence of which had not been heretofore suspected. After examining the tracks Professor LeConte became both interested and astonished and ordered a careful survey of the quarry and the tracks..." Read the full article here:Eureka Daily Sentinel, October 24, 1882
1883 - WILLIAM GARRARD. The State Prison Under His Management.
A correspondent of the Reno Gazette says: A visit to the State Prison Sunday afternoon was enjoyable. Major Garrard has kept that institution up to its former standard of excellence, and has made a most efficient Warden. In this connection it may be well to say that the Republicans must use excellent judgment in selecting a candidate as his successor if they expect to elect him. Warden Garrard will make a splendid showing. His administration has been very successful; in fact, nearly perfect. He has used good judgment in looking after the many duties of this important office and deserves great credit. The place is as clean and neat in every department as soap, water and muscle can make it. The prisoners are as contented as men deprived of their liberty could well be, and look healthy.
The shoe shop has been well conducted, and Foreman Burlington has manufactured nothing but first-class goods, which Warden Garrard has disposed of. They only have about $4,000 in manufactured stock on hand. At the present time there are but 213 convicts, at the January meeting of the Board of Pardons that number will most likely be reduced some. His appropriation was $100,000. Of this amount about $98,000 has been used. The number of convicts for the two years will average probably 125 to 126, about 20 less than under Batterman's administration. Major Garrard expects his party to stand by his official record, and if 8 Republican members think him as good as anybody else and think it for the interest of the State to retain him he will of course accept the trust for another term.Eureka Daily Sentinel, January 6,1883, For the full newspaper page visit:Chronicling America Library of Congress
1885-1889: In March 1885, William Garrard was appointed Superintendent of the U.S. Mint in Carson City by President Grover Cleveland to replace deceased Superintendent James Crawford. The Carson City Mint had been losing bullion deposits and its coining privilege subsequently revoked due to lack of smelter trust (theft) when Superintendent Garrard took control on April 1, 1885. Controversy under the previous mint management's tenure included serious bribe and theft accusations leveled at Superintendent Crawford, Chief Clerk Hofer and Assayer Prescott by mint employees who wrote letters of affadavit and signed a petition to congress:
1890 - A Little Bit of Mint History.
The Mint at Carson was established by an act of Congress approved March 3, 1863, but coinage operations were not commenced until January 1870. James Crawford was Superintendent from September 9, 1874, until his death March 8, 1885. William Garrard was then appointed, and assumed his duties April 1, 1885. Levi Dague, the Coiner, was suspended April 1, 1885 to make place for Joseph R. Ryan, who was in turn suspended in the following August because coinage operation had ceased. The last coins from the Carson City Mint bear the date of 1885, and the presses have not been run since April 1, 1885. Up to that time the Mint had coined a total of $35,735,813, including $16,595,845 in gold and the remainder in silver. The smallest amount coined was during the first year of the operation of the Mint, when the total was $215,000, and the largest amount was $6,402,215 in 1876. CARSON CITY *Minting resumed in 1889, Carson City Morning Appeal, February 7, 1890,
DISGRACE TO THE UNITED STATES MINT SHOULD CEASE Engineering and Mining Journal, Volume 53, June 11, 1892 "The United States Mint at Carson City, Nev., has been used by the Comstock mill ring as a "fence" through which they converted their stolen bullion into legal money. T.R. Hofer, cashier of the Mill Ring's Bullion and Exchange Bank, is the chief clerk, and practically the acting superintendent of the Carson Mint, and in his dual capacity was the "Mother Mandelbaum" for the ring. It is high time this disgrace to the United States Mint should cease"
Read the full Engineering and Mining article regarding T.R. Hofer and the Carson City Mint on page 611 below in Google Books, and article "The Decadence of Nevada as a Mining State" on page 612. Highlights from this article can be found here
CARSON CITY MINT - THEFT INVESTIGATION 1895, PHOTO BELOW:
From 1885 - 1889 Major William Garrard honorably served as Carson City Mint Superintendent. During the 1895 mint theft investigation, he was acquitted of any suspicion. However, theft losses during Superintendent Hofer's mint tenure during 1892-1894 were never accounted for.
1895 - CARSON MINT CALLED A "FENCE"
"The Mining Stock Association of this city is preparing an important document for the use of Government officials who are now trying to find out how a shortage of $60,000 has occurred at the United States Mint at Carson..."Read full article here: San Francisco Call, March 24, 1895
Reno Gazette, April 9, 1895
CARSON MINT STEAL The Shortage Is Known to Be Eighty Thousand Dollars. ARRESTS WILL FOLLOW. For Over Five Years the Pilfering Has Been Going On Without Detection. HOW THE WORK WAS DONE. Deposits of Rich Bars Substituted by Metal Containing Less Than Credited.
RENO, The Gazette this evening publishes the following concerning the Carson Mint scandal : John T. Jones, assistant melter and refiner of the United States Branch Mint at Carson, and Ernest Harris, melter in the I melter and refiner's department, were suspended this morning. This may or may not be an indication of what will shortly follow.
The Gazette has positive information that the mint shortage amounts to $80,000 and covers a period of about five years, running back to the time that Samuel C. Wright was Superintendent, then through the two years of T. R. Hofer's administration. Hofer was appointed Superintendent at the time of the death of Wright, in the summer of 1892, and the shortage continued during the present administration.
The bullion on hand has all been reassayed to ascertain if the value stamped on the "shoes" or bars tally with their true value. It is needless to say that it does not. Inspector Mason is making a most thorough examination into Mint affairs and will undoubtedly succeed in placing the theft where it rightfully belongs.
The inspector found that one deposit, containing about $23,000, one-half of which was gold, had been substituted by bars which are valued at only $2000, principally silver, while the original contained a large percentage of gold. The genuine bars contained 482 1/2 fine grains of gold and 500 fine in silver and 17 1/2 base, maxing the 1000 grains, which is the standard. Approximately the spurious bars only contained 24 fine in gold and the balance in silver. This transaction alone shows a shortage of about $21,000 and leaves a further stealing of about $80,000 yet to be accounted for, and which may have been taken during the process of refining.
A bar to be refined containing gold, silver and base is sent to the refining department and there undergoes either a sulphuric or nitric acid process. In the sulphuric acid process a bar of bullion is placed in a pot over the furnace, sulphuric acid is poured into the pot over the bar and heat applied. After a certain degree of heat is attained the bullion is dissolved, the silver and other metal becoming a liquid, the gold precipitating. The liquid is then siphoned off and placed in a large leaden vat, In mint parlance called a "house," in the bottom of which are pipes containing hot water and steam, in order to keep the liquid hot. In the bottom of this "house" are a great many bars of copper. Blue vitriol (sulphate of copper) is then poured in and another chemical action then takes place, which causes the silver and other metals in solution to be precipitated.
As there is great affinity between them and the copper bars, the molten metal is deposited thereon and they are afterward taken out and the silver and other metals obtained by scraping them. The precipitated gold, which is described above, undergoes a certain process called "sweating," after which it is ready to be run into bars by itself. Gold in this State is necessarily very fine, almost pure, being nearly 1000 fine.
A Gazette reporter saw United States District Attorney Jones and endeavored to find some information concerning the Mint shortage, but he declined to give out any information except to state that important arrests would be made in a short time and that there may be great surprises when the names are known. Mr. Jones said that the Government has a full corps of men in various departments at various places procuring the necessary proof to warrant arrests, and that, notwithstanding the great ingenuity of the criminals in their operations, a very complete chain of evidence of their guilt has even at this time been welded. Further than this Mr. Jones would not speak, but said that when the proper time arrived he would give the press complete information. Civil as well as criminal proceedings will most likely be instituted against those who are even remotely connected with the steal. California Digital Newspaper Collection
STEALING GOLD FROM THE MINT ..."A queer thing about that case," said Mr. Mason yesterday, "was that he had been robbing the Mint for years, making false returns to cover his stealings, and then found that another person in the Mint was stealing in the same way. He dared not expose the thief, as in doing so he would expose himself. So he had to make the false returns for this other thief, and was discovered through his efforts to cover up the other man's dishonesty..." Read the full article here: Carson City Daily Independent, Wednesday August 14, 1895
1896 - THEFT AT THE MINT: Conefession by James Heney 1896This statement was made and signed by James Heney, before U.S. Attorney C.A. Jones, at the Nevada State Penitentary, April 20, 1896. Heney was later pardoned by the President:
Morning Appeal, Carson City November 16, 1905
A GIFT HIGH SCHOOL - Nevada Education Bulletin, August 1923 Of particular interest to Nevadans will be the information that the town of Shelton, Mason County, Washington, is the recipient of the gift of a new high-school building, The Irene S. Reed High School, named in honor of the wife of the donor, Mr. Mark E Reed.
Mrs. Reed is the granddaughter of a former Nevadan, Mr. William Garrard, who will be remembered by old-timers as at one time Warden of the Nevada State Prison. Her mother Tolly Garrard, was married to Sol G. Simpson and is still living near Shelton Washington.
Mr. Reed came to realize the need of a new high-school building for Shelton through the services of his wife, who for a number of years has been a member of the Shelton School Board.
In recent years large gifts to our higher institutions of learning have been made from time to time by citizens who are fortunately situated financially, but it is a rare thing to have a fine commodious high-school building given to a community by a wealthy citizen in order that the boys and girls of that community may have an enriched and enlarged opportunity in such a "people's college." It is possible that some of our wealthy Nevadans may find similar opportunity for service to their comunitieties. Shelton, Washington, is certainly to be congratulated, and Nevada feels a personal interest because of the former ties of Mrs. Reed to the Sagebrush State.